Assessment of the Accumulation Ability of Festuca rubra L. and Alyssum saxatile L. Tested on Soils Contaminated with Zn, Cd, Ni, Pb, Cr, and Cu

Agnieszka Pusz, Magdalena Paulina Wiśniewska, Dominik Rogalski

The contamination of soils with metals applies, in particular, to areas related to industry, the mining of raw materials and ores, transport, and agriculture. Unlike organic materials, metals cannot degrade over time and need to be reduced, removed, or immobilized in soil. One of the remediation methods for soils contaminated with metals is phytoextraction, which uses plants’ ability to accumulate metals in their own tissues. Metals enter the plant organism through the roots and are transported to the aboveground parts, where they are accumulated. In this study, we evaluated the phytoaccumulative abilities of two plant species tested on soils from industrial areas contaminated with metals to different extents (Zn, Cd, Ni, Pb, Cr, and Cu). The research was conducted for three years under the conditions of a pot experiment. In order to obtain four soils with varying degrees of metal contamination, two soils from industrial areas, G1 (contaminated) and G2 (uncontaminated), were mixed in the following ratios: 1:1, 1:3, 1:7, and 1:9. In the phytoremediation process, Festuca rubra L. and Alyssum saxatile L. were tested. After analyzing the results of the bioconcentration factor (BCF) for the tested plants, it was noted that both of the tested plants accumulated Cd and Zn more easily, followed by Cu, Ni, and Cr, and then Pb to a lesser extent. The values of factors for Cd and Zn were correlated with the high mobility of these elements compared to other metals and their relatively easy uptake by plants. Alyssum saxatile L. has an ability to accumulate Cd compared to Festuca rubra L., which is confirmed by the BCF (0.764) and transfer factor (TF) (3.5) (for 1:7 combination) values. The calculated results for the BCFs for Alyssum saxatile L. are less than one for all tested metals, which allows us to state that Alyssum saxatile L. is not an accumulator.

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