Waste iron as a robust and ecological catalyst for decomposition industrial dyes under UV irradiation

Dominika Ścieżyńska, Dominika Bury, Michał Jakubczak, Jan Bogacki, Agnieszka Jastrzębska, Piotr Marcinowski

In an era of increasing environmental awareness, it is very important to work towards eliminating or at least reducing as many harmful industrial substances as possible. However, the implementation of green chemistry methods for wastewater treatment can be difficult especially due to complexity, the high cost of reagents, and the required long process time. This paper focuses on using waste iron (WI) to remove two kinds of amaranth dye commonly used in industry. To enhance the process, UV irradiation and hydrogen peroxide were used. The novelty of the research was the use of efficient and reusable WI as a heterogeneous catalyst in the process. WI material characteristics was done before and after the process using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray fluorescence (XRF). Zeta potential, size characterization, circularity, and direct band gap were also determined. As a result of treatment complete decolorization of both dyes was achieved, as well as 99% absorbance removal after 15-min process time. The total organic carbon (TOC) decrease after 60-min process time was in the range from 86.6 to 89.8%. Modified pseudo-second-order reaction reflects obtained results of treatment efficiency. Treatment results, confirmed by WI material characterization, indicate satisfactory stability of the catalyst and good oxidation capacity.

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