Water Hammer Simulation in a Steel Pipeline System With a Sudden Cross Section Change
Agnieszka Malesińska, Michał Kubrak, Mariusz Rogulski, P. Puntorieri, V. Fiamma, G. Barbaro
Contractions and expansions are common features in various types of pipeline systems. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of a sudden cross section change on transient pressure waves. The paper presents laboratory data and numerical calculations of pressure oscillations during the valve-induced water hammer in serially connected steel pipes. Five different variants of experiments were conducted which included recording pressure changes at the downstream end of the pipeline system. The more sections with different diameters there are connected in series, the more complex the transient wave recorded is. Laboratory data indicate a significant influence of individual pipeline sections on the final course of pressure oscillations. Transient equations were solved using the explicit MacCormack scheme. In order to numerically simulate water hammers in pipe series, the improved junction boundary condition was established. It involves assigning two sets of values, which describe flow parameters, to the connection node thus causing it to act as two separate nodes. The numerical model was calibrated with the unsteady friction factor. The derivation of equations that take into account a sudden change in diameter in the connected pipes allowed the reproduction of the wave nature of the water hammer phenomenon, results were satisfactory as compared to experimental data. The numerical model correctly reproduced pressure wave interactions and pressure amplitudes.