Integrated Ozonation and Photocatalysis to Remove Pollutants for Reuse of Rainwater

Anna Marszałek, Katarzyna Anna Affek, Monika Załęska-Radziwiłł, Mariusz Dudziak

Rainwater is susceptible to pollutants such as sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, heavy metals, and particles, posing challenges to water quality protection and soil degradation, impacting ecosystems and agriculture. The study focuses on the effectiveness of combined ozonation and photocatalysis in improving physicochemical parameters and reducing toxic substances. Integrated analyses, including ecotoxicological assessments, evaluate the impact of treatment on actual rainwater samples. The results indicate significant reductions in color, heavy metals, and organic pollutants after treatment. Microbiological analyses reveal the inactivation of E. coli, which is crucial for safe water reuse. Ecotoxicity studies show no toxicity to crustaceans, but slight toxicity to algae and bioluminescence bacteria in post-treatment samples. Genotoxicity assessments indicate that there is no detectable DNA damage. Overall, the study highlights the complex nature of rainwater pollution and the efficacy of photocatalytic ozonation in reducing contaminants, underscoring the need for more research to ensure sustainable water resource management.

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