Ambient Particulate Air Pollution and Daily Hospital Admissions in 31 Cities in Poland

Łukasz Adamkiewicz, Katarzyna Maciejewska, Daniel Rabczenko, Anetta Drzeniecka-Osiadacz

A strong and consistent association has been observed between morbidity or mortality rates and PM concentration, and is well documented in many countries. In Poland, despite poor air quality, studies concerning the evaluation of acute health effects of ambient air pollution on morbidity from respiratory or cardiovascular diseases are rare. We examined the short-term impact of PMx concentration on hospital admission in 31 Polish cities based on the daily PM10, PM2.5 concentration, meteorological variables, and hospital data. The generalized additive model (GAM) and a random-effects meta-analysis were used to assess the impact of air pollution on morbidity within the exposed population. Almost 1.6 million cardiovascular admissions and 600 thousand respiratory disorders were analyzed. The RR values for PM10-related cardiovascular and respiratory hospital admissions in Poland are equal to 1.0077 (95% confidence interval, 1.0062 to 1.0092) and 1.0218 (95% confidence interval, 1.0182 to 1.0253), respectively, while for PM2.5 1.0088 (95% confidence interval, 1.0072 to 1.0103) and 1.0289 (95% confidence interval, 1.0244 to 1.0335), respectively. Moreover, a moderate heterogeneity of RR estimates was observed between the analyzed cities (I2 values from 27% to 45%). The presented analysis confirms the significant association between hospital admission and PMx concentration, especially during heating seasons.

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