Binh Quang Nguyen, Thanh-Nhan-Duc Tran, Maria Grodzka-Łukaszewska, Grzegorz Igor Sinicyn, Venkat Lakshmi
In the present day, the acceleration of urban surface heat impacts resulting from urbanization and industrialization is critical for citizens and municipal governments in developing-country cities. The previous key findings have indicated the association between urban surface heat and the following areas: forests, mixed agricultural land, built-up area, and water bodies. This study was motivated by a lack of knowledge regarding the variation of temperature, evaporation, and humidity in Central Vietnam’s major region. The non-parametric Mann–Kendall test, Sen’s slope estimator, and Landsat image analysis were employed to determine the trend and statistical significance of the variables across the 42-year study period for Da Nang city and Quang Nam province. Our results show that Da Nang city has a consistent trend with a high correlation between temperature, evaporation, and relative humidity, whereas Quang Nam province showed an inverse relationship between temperature and relative humidity since the beginning of the regional urbanization. The maximum, minimum, and mean temperatures have increased by at least 0.29 °C in Quang Nam province and 0.71 °C in Da Nang city since 2000. Between 1979 and 2021, the frequency of days with temperatures exceeding 35 °C has increased by two and seven days during the past decade at the meteorological stations in Da Nang and Tam Ky, respectively. The temperature in Da Nang city varied from 31.80 °C to 32.82 °C with high temperatures concentrated in urbanized regions with less coverage of small trees, plants, and water bodies. Thus, the results of this study will serve as a scientific basis for decision-makers and regional officials for land-use management and to increase community awareness of sustainable planning, particularly in Da Nang city and Quang Nam province in Central Vietnam.