Łukasz Adamkiewicz , Maciej Kryza , Dominika Mucha , Małgorzata Werner , Anna Gayer , Anetta Drzeniecka-Osiadacz , Tymoteusz Sawiński
Emissions from the household sector are the most significant source of air pollution in Poland, one of the most polluted countries in the EU. Estimated health impacts of the reduction of these emissions under three scenarios are presented. The EMEP4PL model and base year emission inventory were used to estimate average annual PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations with spatial resolution of 4 km × 4 km. The change in emissions under each of the scenarios was based on data from a survey on household boilers and insulation. Scenario 1 included replacement of all poor-quality coal-fired boilers with gas boilers; Scenario 2 included replacement of all poor-quality coal-fired boilers with low-emission boilers but still using solid fuels; and Scenario 3 included the thermal refurbishment of houses with the worst insulation. Impacts on the following health parameters were estimated: premature deaths (PD), Chronic Bronchitis (CB), Bronchitis in Children (BiC) and Work Days Lost (WDL). The concentration–response functions recommended by the WHO HRAPIE project were used. The analysis was conducted for two regions: Lower Silesia and Lodzkie province. The largest reduction of health impact was observed for Scenario 1. For Lower Silesia, the annual PD decreased by 1122 (34.3%), CB by 1516 (26.6%), BiC by 9602 (27.7%) and WDL by 481k (34.7%). For Lodzkie province, the largest impacts were estimated as decreases in PD by 1438 (29.9%), CB by 1502 (25.3%), BiC by 9880 (26.8%) and WDL by 669k (30.4%).