Nina Doskocz, Monika Załęska-Radziwiłł
The widespread use of nanoparticles leads to their presence in wastewater, landfills and migration to the environment, especially to water and soil. However, while the lists of known toxic effects of
nanoparticles continue to grow, there is still a vast gap in our knowledge about their harmfulness. In this study, SOS Chromotest and comet assay were used to the genotoxicity of aluminum oxide
nanoparticles (Al2O3 NPs) using Escherichia coli bacteria and erythrocytes of Cyprinus carpio. Al2O3 NPs are used by military and commercial industries in many applications. The analysis of the obtained
results showed that the tested nanoparticles can potentially cause changes in the genetic material of the bioindicators. Results of genotoxicity induction coefficient (I) values in the SOS Chromotest
clearly showed the genotoxicity of Al2O3 NPs, both in the presence and in the absence of S9 fraction. In turn, the statistical analysis of the comet assay test results showed a significant increase of ‘%
DNA in tail’ and ‘tail length’ of comets in cells populations incubated in solutions of Al2O3 NPs compared to the negative control. Furthermore, the obtained results showed that the nanoparticles had
a greater effect on the genetic material of bacteria and eukaryotic cells than their bulk counterparts.