Water Quality Changes in Cement-Lined Water Pipe Networks

Jacek Wąsowski, Dariusz Kowalski, Beata Kowalska, Marian Kwietniewski, Małgorzata Zawilska

This research focused on a model setup fed with underground water pumped into a water supply network. The scope of the research included a long- and a short-term stagnation of water in the setup and a water flow of 0.1 m/s. The water supplied into the system gradually lost its corrosive properties and developed calcium carbonate precipitation capability. These processes indicated that cement components migrate from the lining into the water. Apart from the primary components, the presence of the following trace elements was found: iron (399.6 ppb), magnesium (17.8 ppm), zinc (26.9 ppb), barium (22.6 ppb), boron (21.6 ppb), sodium (10.8 ppm), gallium (2.1 ppb). At early stages of the operation, recorded quantities were not significant. Leaching of the trace elements from cement increased after water was chlorinated. In turn, the highest percent increases were observed in the case of zinc (217%), boron (19%) and gallium (12%), whereas the increase for sodium, iron, barium and magnesium in water was insignificant (reaching a few percent). A repeated analysis of samples of stagnant water in the setup showed that most of trace elements were below the detectability level. Final concentrations of all elements identified in the water after its contact with internal cement mortar lining were much lower than the limit values set out for drinking water

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